Scientific Publications

I have also written quite a number of scientific publications on various topics, and presented at various international conferences and symposia, mainly on gemstones, such as sapphires, diamonds, opals and lapis lazuli, and other themes like bacterially deposited gold. Most of these publications stemmed from my Ph.D. research at Macquarie University and later world travels. It is beyond the scope of present these publications here in full, but anyone interested can follow up them up from the list of titles presented below.

I will, however, provide a link to my Ph.D. thesis entitled "Alluvial Sapphires and Diamonds of the New England Gem Fields, New South Wales, Australia" as a complete, high quality copy of this work, and accompanying maps, is not available elsewhere.


SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS:

Coenraads, R.R. (1989), Evaluation of the natural lagoons of the Central Province, N.S.W. & are they sapphire producing maars? Bulletin of the Australian Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 20, 347-363.

Pecover, S.R. & Coenraads, R.R., (1989). Tertiary volcanism, alluvial processes, and the origin of sapphire deposits at "Braemar" near Elsmore, northeastern New South Wales. New South Wales Geological Survey - Quarterly Notes 77, 1-23.

Coenraads, R.R., Sutherland, F.L. and Kinny, P.D. (1990), The Origin of Sapphires: U-Pb dating of zircon inclusions sheds new light. Mineralogical Magazine , 54, 113-122.

Coenraads, R.R. (1990). Key areas for alluvial diamond and sapphire exploration in the New England gem fields, New South Wales, Australia. Economic Geology, 85, 1186-1207.

Coenraads, R.R. & van der Graaf, R. (1991). An occurence of gem garnets from Horse Gully in the New England gem fields, New South Wales. Australian Gemmologist, 17(10), 412-415.

Coenraads, R.R. (1990). Palaeogeography of the Braemar sapphire deposit: Implications for deep-lead sapphire exploration in the Central Volcanic Province, New South Wales. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 123, 75-84.

Coenraads, R.R., Paige, S.C.B. and Sutherland, F.L. (1991). Ilmenite mantled rutile crystals from the Uralla District, New South Wales. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 124, 23-34.

Coenraads, R.R. (1992). Doctoral thesis abstract: Alluvial sapphire and diamond deposits of the New England gem fields, New South Wales, Australia. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 125, 19-21.

Coenraads, R.R. (1992). Surface Features of Natural Rubies and Sapphires associated with Volcanic Provinces. Journal of Gemmology, 23, 3, 151-160.

Bischoff, G.C.O., Coenraads, R.R. and Lusk, J. (1992). Microbial gold; an example from Venezuela. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh., 185, 2, 131-159.

Coenraads, R.R. (1992). Origin of alluvial sapphire deposits associated with eastern Australian volcanic provinces (in Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Guilin College of Geology, 12, 2, 119-125.

Coenraads, R.R. (1992). Sapphires and rubies associated with volcanic provinces: Inclusions and surface features shed light on their origin. Australian Gemmologist, 18, 3, 70-78.

Coenraads, R.R. (1992), Key areas for alluvial diamond and sapphire exploration in the New England Gem Fields, New South Wales, Australia - a reply. Economic Geology, 87, 449-451.

Coenraads, R.R. (1993). The San Calixto Observatory in La Paz, Bolivia: Director Dr Lawrence A. Drake S.J. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 126, 191-198.

Coenraads, R.R. (1994). Depositos diamantíferos del río Guaniamo, estado Bolívar, Venezuela (in Spanish with English abstract). Bolotin de la Sociedad Venezolana de Geólogos. 19(1-2), 41-49.

Coenraads, R.R., Webb, G., and Sechos, B. (1994). Alluvial Diamond Deposits of the Guaniamo Region, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Australian Gemmologist, 18(9), 287-294.

Coenraads, R.R. (1994). Evaluation of potential sapphire source rocks within the catchments of Kings Plains Creek and Swan Brook, near Inverell, New South Wales. Records of the Australian Museum, 46, 5-24.

Bischoff, G.C.O. and Coenraads, R.R. (1994). Fossil and recent traces of biodegradation on heavy minerals. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh., 4, 246-256.

Coenraads, R.R. (1995). Gemstones of New South Wales. Australian Gemmologist, Jubilee Issue, 19, 91-107.

Coenraads, R.R., Vichit, P. and Sutherland, F.L. (1995). An unusual sapphire zircon magnetite xenolith from the Chanthaburi Gem Province, Thailand. Mineralogical Magazine , 59, 465-479.

Sutherland, F.L. and Coenraads, R.R. (1996). An unusual ruby-sapphire-sapphirine-spinel assemblage from the Tertiary Barrington volcanic province, New South Wales, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine , 60, 623-638.

Coenraads, R.R. (1996). Combarbalitá, an ornamental kaolinite from Combarbala, Chile. Australian Gemmologist, 19(8), 325-334.

Coenraads, R.R. and Pogson, R.E. (1998). An occurrence of microcrystalline opal, Nipple Mountain, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada. Australian Gemmologist, 20(2), 58-61.

Sutherland, F.L., Schwartz, D., Jobbins, E.A., Coenraads, R.R. and Webb, G. (1998). Distinctive gem corundum suites from discrete basalt fields: a comparative study of Barrington, Australia, and West Pailin, Cambodia, gemfields. Journal of Gemmology, 26(2), 65-85.

Sutherland, F.L., Hoskin, P.W.O., Fanning, C.M. and Coenraads, R.R. (1998). Models of corundum orgin from alkali basaltic terrains: a reappraisal. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 133, 356-372.

Coenraads, R.R. and Elmer, P.E. (1999). New opal carving factory at Khao Yai, Thailand. Australian Gemmologist, 20, 198-201.

Coenraads, R.R., and Canut de Bon, C. (2000). Lapis lazuli from the Coquimbo Region, Chile. Gems and Gemology.36, Spring, 30-43.

Coenraads, R.R. and Laird, J.W. (2000). The Slocan Valley sapphire deposit, Nelson, British Columbia, Canada. Australian Gemmologist, 20, 410-415.

Sutherland, F.L. Graham, I.T., Pogson, R.E., Schwarz, D., Webb, G.B., Coenraads, R.R., Fanning, C.M., Hollis, J.D. and Allen, T.C. (2002). The Tumbarumba basaltic gem field, New South Wales: In relation to sapphire-ruby deposits of eastern Australia. Records of the Australian Museum, 54, 215-248.

Sutherland, F.L., Bosshart, G., Fanning, C.M., Hoskin, P.W.O. and Coenraads, R.R. (2002). Sapphire crystallization, age and origin, Ban Huai Sai, Laos: Age based on zircon inclusions. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 20, 841-849.

Coenraads, R.R. and Sobels, G. (2004). The traditional Thai gemstone heat treatment furnace: Exploring the mystery. China Gems (in Chinese), 150-152.

Coenraads, R.R. and Rosas-Zenil, A. (2007). Leopard Opal: Play-of-color opal in vesicular basalt from Zimapán, Hidalgo State, Mexico. Gems & Gemology, 42, Winter, 236-246.


publications in preparation


Coenraads, R.R., Sutherland, F.L. and Beattie, R. (in prep) An unusual sapphire zircon kyanite xenolith from the Lava Plains gem field, Qld, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine.

Coenraads, R.R., Hutton, I. and Roots, W.D. (in prep). Severe Storm Events on Lord Howe Island 1996-1998: Implications for erosion of volcanic islands.


SYMPOSIA & CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS:

Coenraads, R.R. and Ellis, R.M. (1982). Patterns of induced microearthquakes at the Sullivan Mine, Kimberley, British Columbia; potential for 3-D fault plane mapping. American Geophysical Union 28th annual Pacific Northwest regional meeting, Ellensburg, Washington, Sept. 13-20, 1981, EOS Transactions, 63(8) p. 174-175.

Coenraads, R.R. (1983). Origin of the coastal valleys in the Sydney region. Advances in the Study of the Sydney Basin. Seventeenth Symposium, program and abstracts, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, p. 85.

Young, A.J. & Coenraads, R.R. (1986) "A 3D seismic interpretation - Flounder Field, Gippsland Basin, in Glenie, R.C. (ed.), Second South Eastern Australia Oil Symposium. Technical papers presented at Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia symposium, 14-15 November, 1985, Melbourne. 97-108.

Coenraads, R.R. (1988), Structural control and timing of volcanism in the central province. Implications for regional targeting of prospective areas for sapphire and diamond exploration; New England Tectonics and Metallogenesis, in Kleeman J.D. (ed.). Proceedings of a symposium held at the University Of New England, Armidale New South Wales 14-18 November 1988, 302-307.

Coenraads, R.R. (1991). Sapphires and rubies associated with volcanic provinces: Inclusions and surface features shed light on their origin. Gemmological Association of Australia 45th Federal Conference and Seminar, Canberra, May 3-5, 1991, p. 2-14.

Coenraads, R.R. and Ollier, C.D. (1992). Tectonics and landforms of the New England Region, in W.F. Wilmott, (ed.), Regional and Economic Geology of the New England District, Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane, 1992, p. 44-54.

Coenraads, R.R. (1994). Tertiary landscape and drainage, New England, New South Wales: Application to deep lead diamond and sapphire exploration. Diamonds, Sapphires and Tertiary Volcanics Symposium. The Earth Resources Foundation, Sydney University, 2nd December 1994, 10pp.

Coenraads, R.R. (1994). The stone statues of Easter Island: A secret in their making. Royal Society of New South Wales, 1045th General Monthly Meeting, Wednesday 7th September, Bulletin No. 181, 1994.

Coenraads, R.R. (1995). Gemstones of New South Wales. Gemmological Association of Australia 49th Federal Conference and Seminar, Brisbane, May 4-8, 1995, 1 pp.

Coenraads, R.R. (1995). Mexico: Understanding its culture - Indian or Spanish, a mestizo dilemma. Royal Society of New South Wales, 1054th General Monthly Meeting, Wednesday 1st November, Bulletin No. 192, 1995.

Sutherland, F.L., Schwartz, D., Jobbins, E.A., Coenraads, R.R. and Webb, G. (1998). Remarkable similarities between gem corundum suites from Barrington, Australia, and Pailin, Cambodia, basalt fields. , 64-65.

Sutherland, F.L., Schawarz, D., Coenraads, R.R., Webb, G. and Coldham, T. (1999). Origin of chromium-coloured gem corundums, Australia. Extended abstracts, International Gemmology Conference, Goa, India. Sept-Oct.

Sutherland, F.L., Coenraads, R.R., Fanning, C.M., and Hoskin, P.W.O. (2001). “Young” and “old” sapphires from SE Asian and Australian basaltic gemfields. Extended abstracts, International Gemmology Conference, Madrid, Spain. October.

Sutherland, F.L., Schwartz, D., Coenraads, R.R. and Fanning, C.M. (2001). Colourful corundums from volcanic furnaces, eastern Australia and elsewhere.

Coenraads, R.R. and Rosas-Zenil A. (2001). Precious-Opal-filled vesicular basalt (“Leopard Opal”) from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico. Geodiversity Symposium, Australian Museum. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 134, 101-117.

Coenraads, R.R. and Sobels, G. (2004). The traditional Thai gemstone heat treatment furnace: Exploring the mystery. 29th International Gemmological Conference, Wuhan, China, September, 2004, 192-200.

Coenraads, R.R., and Pecover, S.R. (2008). Gemstones in Australia: the state of play. Keynote Address to the Industrial Minerals session. Ninth International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) 2008, 8 – 10 September 2008, Brisbane